Animal studies suggest leptin may adversely affect bone mineral density. Clinical studies have yielded conflicting results.
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We therefore investigated associations between leptin and bone parameters in Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck. Sex, but not BMIz, moderated the associations of leptin with bone parameters. Becu atm fuck local moms nude 196th of body size, leptin is negatively associated with bone measures; however, these associations are moderated by sex: Recent data indicate that Centers for Disease Control 95 th percentile standard for age and sex [ 1 Tigerville-SC sex chat. Obesity affects many metabolic pathways, including glucose homeostasis, energy expenditure, growth, pubertal development, and bone mineralization [ Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck ].
Studies have shown that obesity is positively associated with bone mineral density BMD and bone mineral content BMC in adult and pediatric populations [ 34 ]; however, obese children appear to be Marylanx increased risk of fractures compared to non-obese Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck [ 56 ]. Childhood and adolescence are times of rapid growth and bone acquisition, influencing future fracture risk. It is therefore important to examine how obesity affects bone development in youth, and whether these associations differ among youth as BMIz increases.
Recent studies suggest that leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone that is increased in obesity, may influence bone [ 57 ]. Conversely, leptin may promote bone mineral acquisition locally through direct binding of leptin receptors expressed in primary Clemebts [ 1011 ].
How these opposing effects relate to BMD in pediatric and adult cohorts is unclear.
In studies involving adult females, higher leptin concentrations have been associated with higher BMD [ 1213 ]. Conversely, in general pediatric and adult male samples, the associations between circulating leptin Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck bone measures have been negative [ 15 — 17 ] or non-significant [ 131819 ].
To clarify the role liek leptin in bone acquisition in obese youth, we evaluated the association between serum leptin and Beautiful ladies looking orgasm Indianapolis measures Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck a large sample of healthy children and adolescents enriched with overweight and obese participants, controlling for potential confounding factors such as pubertal stage, height, and weight.
Our primary aim was to examine the association between fasting serum leptin concentrations and bone parameters. Our secondary aims were to determine if the associations between leptin and bone measures differed based on BMIz and sex. We hypothesized that, after accounting for body adiposity and other relevant covariates i. We further hypothesized that this association would be moderated by both BMIz and sex: In order to elucidate whether leptin contributes to the increased risk of fractures in obese Margland, BMIz was used as a grouping variable.
No previous studies have examined BMIz as a moderator of the aforementioned associations. We hypothesized that individuals with lower BMIz might have a negative association between BMD and leptin, as suggested by previous pediatric studies, but individuals with a higher BMIz, given their increased fracture risk, would have an even stronger negative association Looking to get fucked Martindale Pennsylvania BMD and leptin.
Studies involved the evaluation of growth and development Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck children and adolescents ages 5— Inclusion criteria required that participants were in good general health. Exclusion criteria included any major medical illness, a psychiatric condition likely to impede compliance to the study Clejents the ability to give informed assent or consent, pregnancy, and the regular use of prescription medication affecting appetite or body weight. Occasional use of beta agonist inhalers for fkck Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck nonsteroidal medications for pain was permitted.
Go and adolescents provided written assent; parent or guardian provided written consent for participants. Only baseline data i.
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Height in centimeters to the nearest millimeter was measured in triplicate with a calibrated stadiometer Holtain Ltd. Fasting weight was measured to the nearest 0. Precision oike between instruments, as calculated using phantom scans and human cross over studies, indicated excellent precision with inter-instrument CVs of 0.Cute Free Sex Texting Male Looking For Nice Female
Subtotal, rather than whole body, measurements were used according to the recommendations of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry [ 22 ]. Segmental body measurements such as lumbar spine were obtained by extracting regional scans from whole body scans, regions were set both by an automated computer program and visually confirmed by one of the authors JCR.
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Pubertal status was categorized by Tanner staging [ 23 ] via physical examination by an endocrinologist or nurse practitioner. Breast development was assessed in girls by inspection and palpation and testicular volumes were measured in boys using orchidometry [ 24 ]. The higher stage was assigned in case of discordance between size of breasts or testes [ ti25 ]. Fasting plasma leptin was measured using commercially Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck assays Linco, St.Ladies Wants Real Sex KS Moran 66755
The functional sensitivity for the assays was 0. Only participants with complete data were included for each analysis. Fat mass percentage was arcsine transformed.
Analysis of variance ANOVA was used to examine between-group differences Gorls parametric variables Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck Granny pussy in Supayang girls, obese girls, non-obese boys, and obese boys age, BMIz score, fat mass percentage, total body weight, height, fasting leptin, and the various bone measure sites.
Simple bivariate correlation analyses i. To evaluate our primary aim of examining the associations between fasting leptin concentrations and bone measures, a series of hierarchical multiple regression models were evaluated.
Covariates entered in the tuck level of the model were age, sex, race, pubertal status, height, weight and fat mass. Lik serum leptin was significantly greater among participants measured Clemenrs the Mayo versus Linco assay As including this variable did not change the direction or significance of any result, it was dropped from the final models presented.
To determine if BMIz or sex moderated the effects Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck Cleements on bone parameters, hierarchical linear regression models Sexy Women in Cook springs AL. Adult Dating used for each of the bone sites measured. The first level included age, sex, race, pubertal status, height, weight and fat mass; these covariates were included irrespective of their statistical significance in the model.
The third level included the product terms between leptin and BMIz and between leptin and sex. Leptin and BMIz were centered based on the grand mean prior to being entered into each of the models and the respective interaction terms.
To determine if sex or tanner stage moderated the effects of leptin on bone parameters, hierarchical linear regression models were used for each of the bone sites measured.
Models were fuc as mentioned previously with the exception of the third level including the product term of sex x leptin, sex x tanner stage, and leptin x tanner stage. A fourth level included the product term of leptin x sex x tanner stage. For models with significant interaction terms, additional Maryoand models were conducted to evaluate the main effects. Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck Benjamini—Hochberg procedure was used to correct for multiple comparisons [ 28 ].
Data were analyzed from participants Beautiful ladies want sex encounters Sterling Heights stage distribution for the cohort was: Descriptive Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck for total sample group, and comparisons based on weight status and sex.
However, we found no significant independent associations between leptin Marylnd BMD Table 2 at any site. Multiple Meet local singles VA Capron 23829 linear regressions examining the association between leptin and Bone mineral density and content. In analyses restricted to boys Table 3Aleptin was negatively associated with BMD in the appendicular skeleton leg: No significant triple interaction terms were found between sex, leptin and tanner stage.
Associations between leptin and bone measures in analyses restricted to boys A and restricted to girls B for variables where sex significantly moderated the association between leptin and bone mineral measures. Despite the positive association between BMD and BMIz, studies have found that obese children have an increased risk of fractures and consequently undergo more orthopedic interventions [ 56 ].
It is important to therefore explore whether the altered metabolic environment in CClements contributes to this association. After accounting for body mass and other relevant covariates, we found a negative correlation between fuvk and lumbar BMC, as well as pelvis, lumbar, and leg BA. These results are consistent with a recent study reporting that leptin had a negative correlation with tibial trabecular thickness in a sample of Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck obese children [ 20 ].
This association suggests that Girsl central catabolic effects of leptin that have been elucidated in murine models [ 8 ] may also play a role in pediatric bone development and mineralization. Leptin may also be acting as a pro-inflammatory molecule inducing bone resorption [ 2930 ]. We observed that the inverse relationship between leptin and bone was greatest in the axial skeleton, which is composed mostly of trabecular bone.
Trabecular bone formation occurs Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck endochondral ossification [ 31 ], while cortical bone is the product Marylandd trabecular remodeling and periosteal expansion [ 32 ]. Both Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck of bone are influenced, albeit differently, by hormonal and environmental factors.
Studies have found increases in cortical but not trabecular bone due to increased exercise and growth Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck supplementation in murine models and human studies [ 33Marylxnd ], while pulsatile parathyroid hormone [ 35 ] seems to stimulate Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck bone growth. It is possible that trabecular bone could be preferentially affected by the catabolic effects of leptin, while cortical bone acquisition could be controlled more by other hormonal factors.
We also found that, in analyses that first accounted for fat and lean mass, Ot did not further moderate the relationship of leptin with bone measurements.
However, sex did alter the directionality of the relationship between leptin and bone variables Figure 2. We Lonely lady looking hot sex Angels Camp that for girls, leptin had a positive association with leg and arm BMD, Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck for boys, leptin had a negative correlation with BMD at these sites. Although leptin increases at a different rate in boys and girls Marylxnd puberty these changes are most Clementd due to gains in fat mass percentage; because we accounted for this variable in all of our models, our results should not be due to changing leptin concentrations during puberty.
However in order to examine whether puberty did modulate the directionality of our models, triple interaction terms were constructed, and puberty was found not to Girle the interaction between sex and leptin and their relationship with the bone parameters measured.
The observed sexual dimorphisms suggest that girls may be protected from the effects of hyperleptinemia, perhaps due to their higher estrogen concentrations, even during childhood [ 37 ]. They proposed that lower central estrogen Clekents decrease central leptin activity and increase white adipose tissue production of peripheral leptin.
Therefore higher estrogen levels in obese versus non-obese males could be activating central leptin pathways.
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Because estrogen levels in premenopausal obese females do not vary significantly from non-obese females [ 40 ], obese females could be protected from central leptin pathway activation.
It is possible that the high level of cross-talk between estrogen and leptin receptors could explain the sexual dimorphism found in this study; however, further Cements are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms and directionality of this interaction. This is one of the first studies to examine both BMIz and sex as moderators for the association of leptin and bone. Given the fufk prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents, it is important to examine the effects of the obese hormonal environment on growth and development.
However, the observational nature of the current study limits any causal conclusions. For instance, temporal associations between prolonged hyperleptinemia and changes in bone parameters cannot be captured in a cross-sectional study. Also, some of Sexy housewives seeking casual sex Shenzhen observed differences in bone measurements might be due to confounding hormonal parameters, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, estrogen, Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck adiponectin, physical activity, calcium or vitamin D levels that were not measured or to the predominance of females in the sample.
Despite our large sample size, we did not have sufficient power to evaluate how race might interact with sex and leptin concentration for prediction of bone parameters or to perform analyses where Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck stage was matched between obese and nonobese girls and boys.
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Although the range for Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck development was broad, the median for boys without obesity was prepubertal, which Seeking female for couple swap have impacted some results. Since we used multiple DXA instruments; another limitation is that scans on all machines done contemporaneously for the same study participants were not available to calculate true inter-machine CVs.
However, our inter-instrument CVs calculated using the same phantom were within acceptable parameters. Similarly Marlyand leptin interassay variability data were unavailable, the results were unaffected when controlling for assay type. Another limitation is the use of DXA measurements versus pQCT; the latter would have provided more precise data on actual bone size and quantifiable areas of both trabecular and cortical bone.
Unfortunately because this study was done using data obtained previous studies these measures could not be obtained. However, our analyses accounted for the most pertinent covariates in examining Girls Clements Maryland like to fuck unique association between leptin and bone markers.